Analysis of the Psychological Characteristics and Entrepreneurial Intentions among University Students


  • Junaid Ali Sohu Department of Public Administration, SALU, Khairpur, Pakistan.
  • Ali Raza Lashari Department of Public Administration, SALU, Khairpur, Pakistan.
  • Israr Ahmed Memon Department of Mathematics, SALU, Khairpur, Pakistan.
  • Manzoor Ali Brohi Department of Management Sciences, BUITEMS, Quetta, Pakistan.
  • Asadullah Kehar Institute of Computer Science, SALU, Khairpur, Pakistan.



Entrepreneurial Intention, Locus of Control, Risk Taking Propensity, Self-Confidence, Ambiguity Tolerance, Need for Achievement, Innovativeness


Today’s technological development and rapid advancements are increasing day by day, simultaneously the rate of unemployment is also rising, especially in developing economies. In the view of long-term perspective, the global economic cycle has also been affected and is leading towards economic crises. Hence, with the dearth of employment opportunities, the youth in developing economies are inclined towards entrepreneurship and startups. Startup ventures provide them with specific sources of income as well as self-independence and self-sufficiency. Hence, the researcher in this paper attempts to explore the entrepreneurial intentions among university students. It has been observed that the reason behind this inclination is the outstanding potential the university students possess and their ambition to try new things and risk-taking tendencies. Furthermore, the new generation has the ability to develop various variations in businesses. The work is conducted on a Pakistani youth segment from the Quaid-i-Azam University Islamabad, which has a diverse pool of students belonging to various regions of Pakistan. Data analysis and findings demonstrate that the students of Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, not only possess a positive attitude toward entrepreneurial intention, but they also face ambiguities and difficulties in taking initiatives. Business assistance is required by them, in the form of financial and moral support, as well as professional guidance for understanding the business background. The study provides some useful insights on the subject and presents future study recommendations and practical implications.

Author Biographies

Junaid Ali Sohu, Department of Public Administration, SALU, Khairpur, Pakistan.

Department of Public Administration, SALU, Khairpur, Pakistan

Ali Raza Lashari, Department of Public Administration, SALU, Khairpur, Pakistan.

Department of Public Administration, SALU, Khairpur, Pakistan

Israr Ahmed Memon, Department of Mathematics, SALU, Khairpur, Pakistan.

Department of Mathematics, SALU, Khairpur, Pakistan

Manzoor Ali Brohi, Department of Management Sciences, BUITEMS, Quetta, Pakistan.

Department of Management Sciences, BUITEMS, Quetta, Pakistan

Asadullah Kehar, Institute of Computer Science, SALU, Khairpur, Pakistan.

Institute of Computer Science, SALU, Khairpur, Pakistan.


Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organisational behaviour and human decision processes, 50, 179−211.

Alen, N. J. (1990). Measurements and antecedents of affective, continuous and normative commitment to the organization, Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63 (1), 1-18.

Alper, S. T. (2000). Conflict management, Efficacy, and Performance in Organizational Teams. Personnel Psychology, 625-642.

Alsam, N., Imran, R., Anwar, M., Hameed, Z., & Kafayat, A. (2013). The Impact of Work-Family Conflict on Turnover Intentions: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan. World Applied Sciences Journal, 24(5), 628- 633.

Amabile, T. B. (2005). Affect and Creativity at Work. 367–403.

Ayub, N., Al-Qurashi, S. M., Al-Yafi, W. A., & Jehn, K. (2017). Personality traits and conflict management styles in predicting job performance and conflict. . International Journal of Conflict Management.

Awogbenle, A. a. (2010). “Youth unemployment: entrepreneurship development programme as an intervention mechanism”. African Journal of Business Management, Vol. 4 No. 6, 831-835.

Ayesha, T. U., Akbar, W., & Shai, S. (2020). Mediating role of emotional stability and self-esteem between mindfulness and psychological wellbeing. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation, 24(1), 5161-5174.

Balay, R. (2006). Conflict management strategies for administrators and teachers. . Asian Journal of Management Cases, 3(5), 5-24.

Balay, R. (2007). Predicting conflict management based on organizational commitment and selected demographic variables. Asia Pacific Education Review, 8(2), 321-336.

Becker-Beck, U. ( 2001). Methods for diagnosing interaction strategies: An application to group interaction in conflict situations. . Small Group Research, 32, 259-282.

Beersma, B. &. (2005). Conflict consequences: Effects of social motives on post-negotiation creative and convergent group functioning and performance. . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(3), 358-374.

Behfar, K. J. (2011). Conflict in small groups: The meaning and consequences of process conflict. . Small Group Research, 42(2), 127-176.

Bird, B. (1988). Implementing entrepreneurial ideas: The case for intention. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 442−453.

Blau, P. (1964). Exchange and Power in Social Life, Wiley, New York, NY.

Boksberger, P. B. (2007). “Multidimensional analysis of perceived risk in commercial air travel”. Journal of Air Transport Management, Vol. 13 No. 2, pp. 90-6.

Brandtstädter, J. &. (1999). Action and self-development: Theory and research through the life span. . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Caputo, A. M. (2019). Ten years of conflict management research 2007-2017. International Journal of Conflict Management, 30(1), 87-110.

Carney, P., and Rayan, M. (2010), “Measuring firm-level innovation: a review of the literature and survey design, innovation foundation”, Nova UCD Innovation Park, University College Dublin, Belfield, available at: (accessed August 11, 2013).

Cetin, M. O., & Hacifazlioglu, O. (2004). Academics’ conflict management styles. Dogus University Journal, 5(2), 155-162.

Chau, P. H.-H. (2007). “Examining customers’ trust in online vendors and their dropout decisions: an empirical study”. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Vol. 6 No. 2, pp. 171-82.

Chen, S. a. (2003). “Interpreting dimensions of consumer trust in e-commerce”. Information Technology and Management, Vol. 4 Nos 2-3, pp. 303-18.

Corritore, C. K. (2003). “Online trust: concepts, evolving themes, a model”, International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 58 No. 6, pp. 737-58.

Cox, K. B. (2001). The effects of unit morale and interpersonal relations on the conflict in the nursing unit. . Journal of Advanced Nursing, 35 (1), 7-19.

Currie, D. G. (2017). Management of workplace conflicts: contrasting pathways in the HRM literature. International journal of management reviews, 19(4), 492-509.

De Clercq, D. T. (2009). When good conflict gets better and bad conflict becomes worse: the role of social capital in the conflict–innovation relationship, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 37(3), 283-297.

Dobkin, A. &. (2006). Communication in a changing world: An introduction to theory and practice. . New York: McGraw Hill.

E´thier, J. H. (2006). “B2C web site quality and emotions during online shopping episodes: an empirical study”, Information & Management, Vol. 43 No. 5, pp. 627-39.

Fauchart, E., and Gruber, M. (2011), “Darwinians, communitarians, and missionaries: the role of founder identity in entrepreneurship”, Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 54 No. 5, pp. 935-957.

Formica, P. (2002), “Entrepreneurial universities: the value of education in encouraging entrepreneurship”, Industry and Higher Education, Vol. 16 No. 3, pp. 167-175.

Fitzsimmons, J. A. (2005). “Entrepreneurial attitudes and entrepreneurial intentions, a cross-cultural study of potential entrepreneurs in India, China, Thailand and Australia”, Babson-Kauffman Entrepreneurial Research Conference, Wellesley, MA, June.

Gibb, and Hannon a. (2006). “Towards the entrepreneurial university?”. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, Vol. 1 No. 4, 73-110.

Hussein, A., Al-Mamary, Y., & Hassan, Y. (2017). Conflict management style and organizational commitment: conceptual framework development. International Journal of Research in Management, Science & Technology, 5(1), 86-97.

Hindle, K. and Rushworth, S. (2000). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Australia, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne.

Ilgan, A. (2020). Examining Principals' Conflict Management Styles: A Study of Turkish Administrators. . Bulletin of Education and Research, 42(1), 1-16.

Jaros, S. H. (2007). Measurement of commitment., Commitment in Organizations. AccumulatedWisdom and New Directions: New York: Taylor & Francis, 347- 382.

Johansen, V., Schanke, T. and Clausen, T.H. (2012), “Entrepreneurship education and pupils: attitudes towards entrepreneurs”, in Helmchen, T.B. (Ed.), Entrepreneurship-Born, Made and Educated, InTech, European Union, Rijeka, pp. 113-126.

Judge, T. A., Erez, A., Bono, J. E., & Thoresen, C. J. (2002). Are measures of self-esteem, neuroticism, locus of control, and generalized self-efficacy indicators of a common core construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(3), 693.

Kassim, M. A. (2014). Conflict Management Styles and Organizational Commitment: A Study among Bank Employees in Penang. . International Journal of Business, Economics and Law, 4(1), 45-53.

Khosravi, M. &. (2013). Studying the Relationship between Knowledge Management and Organizational Entrepreneurship (Case Study: Labor and Social Affairs Department of Qom). Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 643-650.

Kolvereid, L. (1996a). Organisational employment versus self-employment: reasons for career choice intentions. . Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 20 (3), 23–31.

Krueger, N. F. (2000). Competing models of entrepreneurial intentions. . Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5–6), 411−432.

Kuip, I. a. (2004). “Early development of entrepreneurial qualities: the role of initial education”. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, Vol. 2 No. 2, 203-226.

Krueger, N. F. (2007). What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking. . Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(1), 123−138.

Lee, L. W. (2009). Entrepreneurial intentions: The influence of organizational and individual factors. Journal of Business Venturing.

Lim, N. (2003). “Consumers’ perceived risk: sources versus consequences”, Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Vol. 2 No. 3, pp. 216-28.

Lorenzi, P. (2004). Managing the common good: Prosocial leadership. Organizational Dynamics, 33, 282-91.

Luthje, C., Franke, N. (2003). The making of an entrepreneur: testing a model of entrepreneurial intent among engineering students at MIT. R&D Management 33 (2), 135–147.

Marquis, B. L. (2009). Leadership roles and management functions in nursing: Theory and application: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

McKibben, L. (2017). Conflict management: importance and implications. British Journal of Nursing, 26(2), 100-103.

McKibben, L. (2017). Conflict management: importance and implications. British Journal of Nursing, 26(2), 100-103.

McKnight, D. K. (2004). “Dispositional trust and distrust distinctions in predicting high- and low-risk internet expert advice site perceptions”. E-Service Journal, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 35-58.

Morris-Rothschild, B. K. (2006). Teachers' conflict management styles: The role of attachment styles and classroom management efficacy. Journal of school psychology, 44(2), 105-121.

Mohar, Y., Manjit, S.S. and Kamal, K.J. (2007), “Relationship between psychological characteristics and entrepreneurial inclination: a case study of students at university Tun Abdul Razak (UNITAR)”, Journal of Asia Entrepreneurship Sustainability, Vol. 3 No. 2, pp. 23-41.

Park, C. (2017). "A study on the effects of entrepreneurship on entrepreneurial intentions. . “Asia Pacific journal of innovation and entrepreneurship, Vol, 11 No.2., 159-170.

Pruitt, D. G. (1998). Handbook of Social Psychology. In S. T. In D. Gilbert, Social conflict. (pp. 470-503).

Pruitt, D. G. (2014). Some research frontiers in the study of conflict and its resolution. In P. T. Coleman, M. Deutsch, & E. C. Marcus (Eds.),. Handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice. Jossey-Bass/Wiley, 1087–1109.

Postigo, S.R. and Tamborini, M.F. (2002), “Entrepreneurship education in Argentina: the case of the University of San Andres”, IntEnt Conference, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, July 8-10.

Rahim, M. A. (1983). A measure of the styles of handling interpersonal conflict. . Academy of Management Journal, 26 (2), 368-376.

Rahim, M. A. (2011). Managing conflicts in organizations (4th ed.). New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.

Rahim, M. A. (2017). Managing Conflicts in Organizations. Routledge.

Rajan, D. (2013). Impact of nurses turnover on organization performance. . Afro Asian Journal of Social Sciences, 4(4), 1-18.

Revuelto-Taboada, L. C.-G.-B. (2021). High-Commitment Work Practices and Social Responsibility Issues. Interaction and Benefits. Sustainability, 13(2), 459.

Robinson, C. (2010). When conflict happens: navigating difficult interactions with senior teams - fostering a culture of constructive engagement. . Business Strategy Series, 11(4), 214-218.

Schulz-Hardt, S., Mojzisch, A., & Vogelgesang, F. (2008). Dissent as a Facilitator: Individual- and Group-Level Effects on Creativity and Performance. In In C. K. W. De Dreu & M. J. Gelfand (Eds.), The psychology of conflict and conflict management in organizations (pp. 267-288). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Shane, S. L. (2003). Entrepreneurial motivation. . Human Resource Management Review.

Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. . Academy of Management Review, 25(1), 217–226.

Shapero, A. S. (1982). Social dimensions of entrepreneurship. In: Kent, C., Sexton, D., Vesper, C. (Eds.), The Encyclopaedia of Entrepreneurship. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Shih, H.-A. & Susanto, E. (2010). Conflict management styles, emotional intelligence, and job performance in public organizations. International journal of conflict management, 21(2), 147-168.

Smith, D. a. (2007). “Flow and internet shopping behaviour: a conceptual model and research propositions”. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 57 No. 10, pp. 1199-208.

Theron M., B. N. (2014, ). Managing the Academic Talent void: Investigating factors in Academic Turnover and Retention in South Africa. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology. , 40 (1), 2071- 0763.

Thomas, J. L., Bliese, P. D., & Jex, S. M. (2005). Interpersonal conflict and organizational commitment: Examining two levels of supervisory support as multilevel moderators. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35(11), 2375-2398.

Thrikawala, S. (2011). Determinants of entrepreneurial intention among academics in Srilanka: International conference on economics and finance research. LACSIT press, Singapore, 4, 454-458.

Tjosvold, D. (2006). Defining conflict and making choices about its management: Lighting the dark side of organizational life. . International Journal of Conflict Management.

Tjosvold, D., Hui, C., & Law, K. S. (2001). Constructive conflict in China: Cooperative conflict as a bridge between east and west. Journal of World Business, 36(2), 166-183.

Trudel, J. & Reio Jr., T. G. (2011). Managing workplace incivility: the role of conflict management styles-antecedent or antidote? Human resource development quarterly, 22(4), 395-423.

Tunio, M. N., Jariko, M. A., Børsen, T., Shaikh, S., Mushtaque, T., & Brahmi, M. (2021). How Entrepreneurship Sustains Barriers in the Entrepreneurial Process—A Lesson from a Developing Nation. Sustainability, 13(20), 11419.

Van de Vliert, E. E. (1995). Managing conflict with a subordinate and a supervisor: Effectiveness of conglomerated behaviour. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 271-281.

Walczuch, R. a. (2004). “Psychological antecedents of institution-based consumer trust in e-retailing”, Information & Management, Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 159-77.

Wasita Boonsathorn. (2007). "Understanding conflict management styles of Thais and Americans in multinational corporations in Thailand". International Journal of Conflict Management, Vol. 18 Iss 3, 196 – 221.

Wazir H, J. I. (2020). Moderating Effects of Organizational Commitment on Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention. Journal of Research in Emerging Markets., 48-57.

Wesley R. Pieters, E. v. (2020). turnover intention: Lecturers at the University of Namibia. SA Journal of Human Resource Management., 18(0), 1683-7584.

Wesley R. Pieters, Ebben van Zyl, Petrus Ne. (2020). Testing a model of Turnover Intention: Lecturers at the University of Namibia. SA Journal of Human Resource Management. , 18(0), 1683-7584.

Wu, J.-H. a.-C. (2005). “What drives mobile commerce? An empirical evaluation of the revised technology acceptance model”. Information & Management, Vol. 42 No. 5, pp. 719-29.

Zigarmi, D. G. (2018). Work locus of control, motivational regulation, employee work passion, and work intentions: An empirical investigation of an appraisal model. . Journal of Happiness Studies, 19(1), 231–256.

Zimbardo, P. (2003). Psychology: Core concepts(4thed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.



How to Cite

Sohu, J. A. ., Lashari, A. R., Memon, I. A. ., Brohi, M. A. ., & Kehar, A. . (2022). Analysis of the Psychological Characteristics and Entrepreneurial Intentions among University Students. Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management, and Innovation, 4(1), 210-230.